Bio/Neuromodulation Modalities

Quantitative Electroencephalography (qEEG)

qEEG is a measure of electrical patterns at the surface of the scalp through the use of digital technology which primarily reflects cortical activity or “brain waves”. Quantitative assessment of brain waves (i.e. power, frequency/speed, relative power, distribution, spectral analysis, and comparison to normative databases) is used to determine and guide treatment protocols, track progress, and correlate with clinical presentation.


Neurofeedback (NFB)

NFB uses scalp sensors to monitor electrical activity (to reflect cortical brain waves) producing moment-to-moment information to an individual on the state of their neurophysiological functioning. It is biofeedback with a focus on the central nervous system and brain, thereby assisting the client in volitional control of autonomic nervous system functions such as arousal and attention levels.  Visual and/or auditory feedback is provided on the client’s EEG performance, with “rewards” and/or “inhibits” based on protocols designed relative to qEEG maps and clinical presentation. The brain is trained to up or down regulate specific frequencies through operant conditioning in order to achieve desired outcomes.


Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRV)  

HRV measures beat-to-beat changes in heart rate that include changes in the RR intervals between consecutive heartbeats, which is associated with the monitoring of the balance (or lack thereof) in parasympathetic vs. sympathetic nervous system arousal. The aim of heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB) is to exercise the baroreceptor reflex to enhance homeostatic regulation, regulatory reserve, and executive functions. The overarching purpose of HRVB training is to improve the ability to self-regulate and to enhance both the quality of life and performance.

Based on years of research, HRV is a method of synchronizing the heart, mind, and body to reset and create inner clarity, composure, calm reactive emotions, and neutralize stress. This is referred to as HRV coherence.


Audio Visual Entrainment (AVE)

AVE is a technique that utilizes pulses of light and sound at specific frequencies to gently and safely guide the brain into various brain wave patterns. By altering the brain wave frequencies, AVE facilitates the ability to regulate mood, improve sleep patterns, sharpen the mind and increase level of relaxation, all with the simple push of a button. AVE helps to: 1) clear the mind, 2) alter the EEG (brain waves), 3) increase blood flow to the brain, 4) increase neurotransmitters, 5) stabilize the limbic system (emotional calming).


Pulsed Electromagnetic Stimulation (PEMF)

pEMF-pulsed Electro-Magnetic Frequency Stimulation involves the painless pulsing of micro electromagnetic frequency through coils placed on the surface of the scalp. The brain will mimic, or entrain, to what is put into it whether it is magnetic stimulation or current stimulation (tACS-transcranial Alternating Current). Based on observations of the EEG, if you give the brain 10 Hz, it will make, mimic, or follow 10 Hz. The brain will entrain to the stimulations that are given. Low intensity pEMF and tDCS/tACS can be given at high frequency without damaging tissue.

We also know that when you stimulate the brain and entrain it, you cause capillary dilation. When you stimulate the cells, the cells call for resources and you get more blood to the region causing the dilation. The more blood flow to the region, the more oxygen arrives and with it the potential for neurogenesis. The more oxygen to the region, the more cells proliferate, adding new healthy cells to a damaged network. When there is a damaged region, it is important to not only heal the area but also to remove any damaged cells as well. When blood flow is increased in the area, the more free radicals can get pulled out from the region which will in turn reduce inflammation. pEMF and tACS stimulations are both beneficial for reducing inflammation. Neural inflammation as well as inflammation in the body may reduce when using stimulation technology.

The NeuroField X3000 is a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (pEMF), four channel frequency generator that can generate a pEMF frequency range of 0.31 – _300,000 HZ. pEMF with an output intensity range from 1-50 microTesla (uT) that is 10,000,000 times weaker than an EMF pulse given by rTMS devices. Unlike rTMS, which forces a depolarization of the neuron. NeuroField pEMF stimulation again is simply ‘copied’ or mimicked by the brain. In this way, the brain can be “driven” at different speeds depending on the clinical needs of the person. Since the output of NeuroField is so low, it is possible to give pulsed EMF stimulation faster than 10Hz, at long durations, without the concern of generating heat and causing tissue damage.

MRI data and multiple studies have shown that using stimulation technology causes calcium activation in the glial cells of the brain. Studies found that you not only get glial activation at the area where you apply the stimulation, but as soon as that area is activated, it cascades to surrounding areas and has a global effect. The current will go all the way through the brain, so it will affect the cortical, sub-cortical, and even the brain stem areas of the brain. Studies have also shown that sodium activation occurs as well, which can create an increase of evoked potential response.

When brain goes into a state of neuroplasticity it creates a phase shift giving you an open window for training. Thus, you can take a patient, put them into a neuro-plastic state and use the Neurofeedback feature and/or alternating current or electromagnetic features in NeuroField to train them.


Transcranial Electric Stimulation, direct, alternating, or random noise (tDCS, tACS, tRNS)

Transcranial electric stimulation involves application of current/ voltage to two or more surface electrodes, with at least one of them placed on the scalp. The current from the waveform generator passes through the solid conductor, the electrolyte, and the skin to enter or exit the body. The electric and current density fields injected in the tissues are directly proportional to the current entering the body. Transcranial electric stimulators have current-controlled output, meaning that the electrode current is controlled to follow the waveform characteristics programmed in the device (e.g., square current pulses with a set amplitude, pulse width, frequency, etc.) 


Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

Approximately 0.5-1.5 Tesla (T) Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive and relatively painless modality that involves the repetitive pulsing of electromagnetic frequencies to the surface of the scalp. rTMS has been used as a therapeutic tool in various neuropsychiatric disorders because of its ability to specifically modulate distinct brain areas. Studies have shown that repeated stimulation at low frequency produces long-lasting inhibition, or deactivation of excess EEG activity, whereas repeated high-frequency stimulation can produce excitation, or increase of EEG activity, through long-term potentiation.


Near Infrared PhotoBiomodulation (NIR PBM)

Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue, such as the brain, that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. Mechanisms of action include mitochondria and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a brief increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the Mitochondria that may trigger some mitochondrial signaling pathways leading to cytoprotective, anti-oxidant and antiapoptotic effects in the cells, opening of calcium ion channels, increases in cerebral blood flow, greater oxygen availability and oxygen consumption, improved ATP production and mitochondrial activity.